Sabtu, 19 Maret 2011

HISTORY AND IMPACT / EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR RADIATION TECHNOLOGY



Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reaction of atomic nuclei (nucleus = nuclei). Nuclear technology can be found in many-applications, from simple, such as smoke detectors up to something big like a nuclear reactor





 
History
Occurrence in daily life, natural phenomena, are rarely associated with nuclear reactions. Almost all involve gravity and electromagnetism. Both are part of the four fundamental forces of nature, and not the strongest. But the other two, the weak nuclear force and strong nuclear force is the force acting on a short range and do not work outside the nucleus. The nucleus consists of positive charges that are actually going away from each other in the absence of a force that held him back.

Henri Becquerel in 1896 examined the phenomenon fosforesensi on uranium salts when he finally found something called radioactivity. He, Pierre Curie and Marie Curie began to investigate this phenomenon. In the process, they isolate the highly radioactive element radium. They found that the radioactive material produces an intense wave, which they christened with an alpha, beta and gamma. Several types of radiation that they find are able to penetrate various materials and all of them can cause damage. All researchers radioactivity at that time suffered burns from radiation, which is similar to burns from the sun, and only a few are thinking about it.
New phenomenon of radioactivity is known since the existence of patents in the world of medicine that involves radioactivity. Slowly, it is known that the radiation produced by radioactive decay is ionized radiation. Banya radioactive researchers in the past died from cancer as a result of their exposure to radioactivity. Patent medicine concerning radioactive mostly been removed, but other applications involving radioactive material still exist, such as the use of radium salt to make things sparkle.
Since the atoms become more understood, the nature of the radioactivity becomes more clear. Some large nuclei tend to be unstable, so that decay occurs until a certain time interval before reaching stability. Three forms of radiation discovered by Becquerel and the Curies discovered also been understood; alpha decay occurs when an atomic nucleus releases an alpha particle, two protons and two neutrons, equivalent to helium nuclei, beta decay occurs when the release of beta particles, namely high-energy electrons; gamma decay releasing gamma rays, which is not the same as alpha and beta radiation, but an electromagnetic radiation at a frequency and very high energy. The three types of naturally occurring radiation, and gamma ray radiation are the most dangerous and hard to resist.Nuclear energy
Nuclear energy is a type of nuclear technology involving the use tekendali from nuclear fission to release energy, including propulsion, heat, and electric energy generation. Nuclear energy is produced by a controlled nuclear reaction that creates heat that then is used to heat water, produce steam, and steam turbine control. Turbine is used to generate electrical energy and / or perform mechanical work. See nuclear reactor technology
Currently, nuclear energy generates about 15.7% of the electricity generated worldwide (2004 data) and used to power aircraft carrier, icebreaker ships, and submarines.
 
Nuclear Weapons
Nuclear weapons are explosive devices that get the yield of nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both are releasing large amounts of energy from small amounts of mass, even a small nuclear explosive devices to destroy a city with an explosion, fire, and radiation. Called nuclear weapons as weapons of mass destruction, and the use and control has become an international policy aspects since its presence.
The design of nuclear weapons is more complicated than what is visible from the outside, this weapon must hold one or more subcritical masses are stable to carry, rather than induce a critical mass for detonation. Complexity is also felt when it should ensure that the chain reaction must spend a large amount of material before the material was bouncing away. The process of procurement of nuclear materials is also more complicated than it appears, the nuclear substance that is available naturally quite stable, whereas this process requires an unstable nuclear material.
One isotope of uranium, called uranium-235, there is naturally and not stable, but always found mixed with the isotope uranium-238 is a more stable, which number around 99%. Thus, some manner of heavy isotope separation based on differences of three neutrons must be done to isolate the uranium-235.
Another alternative way, the element plutonium has no stable isotopes for use in this process. Plutonium is not naturally there, so it must be made in nuclear reactors.
Manhattan Project to develop nuclear weapons based on each type of element. United States detonated the first nuclear weapon in an experiment with the name "Trinity", near Alamogordo, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945. This experiment to test how a nuclear explosion. Uranium bomb, Little Boy, exploded in the city of Hiroshima, Japan, on 6 August 1945, followed by peldakkan Fat Man plutonium bomb on Nagasaki. By immediately blow it stop World War II.
Since the explosion, no nuclear weapons in an offensive that is released. However, the arms race to develop weapons of mass destruction there. Four years later, on August 29, 1949, the Soviet Union detonated its first nuclear fission weapons. England follow on October 2, 1952, France on February 13, 1960, and China on October 16, 1964.
Unlike conventional weapons, intense light, heat, and explosive power are not only lethal component of nuclear weapons. Half of those killed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki died two to five years after the nuclear explosion due to radiation.
Radiological weapon is a type of nuclear weapon designed to spread dangerous nuclear material into enemy territory. Weapon type does not have the ability to blast like a bomb fission or fusion, but to contaminate a large amount of territory to kill many people. Radiological weapon was never released because they are not useful for conventional armed forces. However, this type of weapon to increase concerns about nuclear terrorism.
Has more than 2000 nuclear tests conducted since 1945. In 1963, the entire state owners and some non-nuclear weapons states signed the Limited Test Ban Treaty, which contains that they will not make nuclear weapons test in the atmosphere, underwater, or outer space. This agreement still allows the underground nuclear testing. France resume nuclear testing in the atmosphere until the year 1974, China until 1980. Underground experiment by the United States last conducted in 1992, the Soviet Union in 1990, and England in 1991, while France and China until 1996. After adopting the Comprehensive Test Ban Teaty in 1996, the entire country has sworn to stop all nuclear testing. India and Pakistan who do not belong to these countries last nuclear experiment in 1998.
Nuclear weapons are the most lethal weapons ever known. When the Cold War, two major forces have a large number of nuclear weapons sufficient to destroy hundreds of millions of people. Various generations of humans living in the shadow of destruction by nuclear, direlfeksikan in films such as Dr. Strangelove and the Atomic Cafe.

Impact / Effects of Radiation
Explosion nuclear reactors in Japan, causing widespread concern about the implications for humans. In Indonesia, the Food and Drug Monitoring Agency (BPOM) even plans to sort the food that comes from Japan. How bahayakah this radiation for humans?

Director General of Disease Control and Environmental Health (P2PL) The Ministry of Health Tjandra Yoga Aditama said, the danger of radiation is true only for those who are exposed at locations around the nuclear reactor.

"For the case in Japan, according to the WHO, the WHO Believes the public health risk is small. Of course it mean for those who do not live near a nuclear reactor site. There is also no specific recommendations from the WHO about Japanese food and others, "said the Legal, Wednesday (03/16/2011).

Health impacts experienced by residents living near nuclear reactors, said Tjandra, also vary depending on the amount of radiation exposure dose, exposure period, and many parts of the body exposed to radiation.

For example, a single dose given in a short time can be fatal. But the same dose administered over several weeks or several months, could only cause a mild effect.

"So the total number of doses and exposure speed to determine the effects of radiation on genetic material in cells," he said.

Tjandra added that acute radiation syndrome can also attack a variety of different body organs, such as brain syndrome which occurs if the total dose of radiation is very high ie more than 30 gray. "It's fatal," he said.

The first symptoms include nausea and vomiting, followed by fatigue, drowsiness and sometimes coma. This phenomenon is most likely caused by inflammation of the brain. A few hours later there will be tremors (shaking), convulsions, unable to walk, to meet death.

The next impact is gastrointestinal syndrome occurs due to total radiation dose is lower, which is 4 or more gray. Symptoms include severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, which causes severe dehydration.

Other syndromes due to the impact of this radiation is hematopioetik syndrome, which attacks the bone marrow, spleen and lymph nodes. Everything is where the formation of blood cells are the main.

"This syndrome occurs when a total dose of 20-10 gray and beginning with the loss of appetite, apathy, nausea and vomiting. The most severe symptoms occur within 6-12 hours after exposure and will disappear within 24-36 after exposure, "he explained.

According to Tjandra, nuclear radiation effects also result in a shortage of white blood cells that often lead to severe infection. "If the total dose of more than 6 gray, then usually the function of hematopoietic disorders and digestive tract will be fatal," he concluded.


Accident
Nuclear accident caused by the energy that is too large often very dangerous. In its history, the first incident involving a fatal radiation exposure. Marie Curie died of aplastic anemia that results from high-level nuclear exposure. Two American researchers, Harry Daghlian and Louis Slotin, died from an incorrect handling of plutonium mass. Unlike conventional weapons, intense light, heat, and explosive power is not the only lethal component of nuclear weapons. Approximately half of the victims died in Hiroshima and Nagasaki died after two to five years after exposure to radiation from atomic bombs.
Radiological and nuclear accidents mostly involving civilian nuclear power. The most common is nuclear exposure to its employees due to nuclear leakage. Nuclear leakage is a term that refers to a serious danger in the release of nuclear material into the environment. The most famous is the case of Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania and Chernobyl in Ukraine. Military reactors are experiencing the same is the Windscale accident in Britain and the SL-1 in the United States.
Military accidents usually involve loss of nuclear weapons or explosives that are not expected. Experiment Castle Bravo in 1954 to produce unexpected explosion, which contaminated a nearby island, a Japanese-flagged fishing boat (with one death), and increasing concerns about contamination of fish in Japan. In the 1950s until the 1970s, several nuclear bombs were missing from submarines and aircraft, some of which have never been found. Over the last 20 years has been so reduced that case.

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